Civil wars in Africa

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    A brief recollection of Civil Wars in Africa.

    Civil wars in Africa

    Internal Armed Conflicts in Africa between the Government and internal opposing forces due to problems associated with state and nation building has affected a lot of individuals and it’s results are deadly.

    1. 🇸🇩 Sudan Civil War

    Current Sudan was established on 1st January 1956. Previously, the occupying forces, Britain and Egypt, integrated Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan in 1946. The South wasn’t a party to the controversies. Both regions were distinct in culture and religion, and were previously governed separately. Yet in 1953 Britain and Egypt decided to grant the monolithic Sudan independence.

    By August 1955, four months before the conventional independence of 1956, civil war between soldiers from the South craving provincial independence and the main government in Khartoum started. The war lasted for more than 16 years and over 2 million people died during the war.

    2. 🇳🇬 Nigerian Civil War

    Nigeria attained independence in 1960. Seven years later, a civil war also known as the Biafra War commenced, from 6th July 1967 to 15th January 1970. All regions had distinct cultures and beliefs and were formerly governed individually by their Commander.

    Yet in 1960, Britain decided to give Nigeria independence not analyzing their discrepancies. Some of the sudden causes of the war were the 15th January 1966 coup, counter coup in July 28th 1966, and the succeeding mass massacres of Easterners (mainly Igbos) in Northern Nigeria.

    After the rejection of the Aburi Accord (Confederation) by General Gowon, the Republic of Benin was first established in the then Mid-Western Nigeria now Edo and Delta.

    The republic didnt last long. The Eastern Region commander General Ojukwu also established the Republic of Biafra which influenced the war between the Eastern Region against the British and Nigeria and more than 2.5 million people died during the war.

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    3. 🇺🇬 Uganda Civil War

    In 1894, the region which is now Uganda came to be a British protectorate. Immediately after, the British approved a consensus with Buganda, creating a constitutional monarchy.

    Buganda kingdom dates back to the 14th century. It is the greatest kingdom in Uganda, and constitutes about 16% of the people. In 1967, the kingdom was eliminated. What happened afterwards was a mesh of revolutions, of intra and inter-country wars, and striking horror from 1971 to 1986.

    Under the existing government, evaluating its recent history, Uganda has been very peaceful though from the 90s till today, there has been a persistent war with rebels of the Lord Resistant Army. 500,000 people died.

    4. 🇷🇼 Rwanda Civil War

    Rwanda achieved its independence from Belgium on 1st July 1962. Before that, a referendum was held to discern if the monarchical structure of government which had existed since the 18th century should be maintained.

    The outcomes were overwhelmingly against protecting the Tutsi monarchy in an independent Rwanda.

    In 1959, the so called Rwanda Revolution ensued, which led to the majority Hutu taking charge of the recently formed republic. The chaos from the Revolution made thousands of Rwandan refugees, most of them Tutsis.

    On 1st October 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), predominantly Tutsi refugees who had escaped to Uganda, initiated an attack on Rwanda and started up a war which ceased temporarily in 1993.

    But in 1994 when a rocket shot down the plane conveying Presidents of Burundi and Rwanda, killing them both, the war started afresh and led to the Tutsi genocide leading to the death of Over 1.5 million people.

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    5. 🇱🇷 Liberia Civil Wars

    When the 1980 coup occurred, Liberia had been a republic for over 100 years. The coup aggravated the formerly peaceful country and established the environment for the civil war which began in 1989 and ceased in 2003 and over 250,000 people died.

    6. 🇲🇿 Mozambique Civil War

    Distinct from most African countries, Mozambique gained independence in 1975 through an armed warfare with Portugal. The war began on 25th September 1964 and ended 8th September 1974.

    Two years after the war for independence, civil war between the ruling government and Mozambique Resistance Movement (RENAMO) began. Though that war ended in 1992, since 2013 there has been a rebirth of RENAMO militancy and Over 1 million people died during the war.

    7. 🇸🇸 South Sudan Civil War

    In 2013, conflict broke out between Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM), the ruling party, and Sudan People Liberation Movement-In Opposition (SPLM-IO).

    Peace talks between both groups have now broken down twice, and the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has warned that if something isn’t done by the international community there’s a likelihood of another Rwanda occurring and during the war, over 400,000 people died.

    Other Civil wars in Africa occurred, but have not been listed.

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